The first media text, promotion, refers to materials deliberately created to support the designed image of a star. Promotional material includes announcements, news releases, fan club publications, photographs, advertisements, product endorsements, and public appearances, as well as advertisements, news releases, or trailers that promote the star’s work product. The content of these promotional materials is consistent with the image that management has designed for the individual and is intended to promote that image to the public (Dyer, 1998). Publicity, the second media text, refers to the influence of the press on a star’s image. Dyer explains that publicity is “theoretically distinct from promotion in that it is not, or does not appear to be, deliberate image- making” (Dyer, 1998).


Publicity is what the press publishes about a star. This type of media text can be found in newspapers, magazines, television, interviews, gossip columns, and basically any other publishable medium that is not directed by promotional efforts. Publicity is important for a star’s image because it appeals to the public as being a more authentic representation of the star, untouched by management. Publicity can have either a positive or negative effect on promotional efforts (Dyer, 1998). The third media text in the revised Dyer model is work product. Work product is what gives the star their celebrity status.